Spacecraft Range Correction

    Tracking spacecraft traveling in deep space is a kep component of NASA's space missions. Accurate range measurement of the spacecraft requires calibration of the media effect that delays the signal propagation between the spacecraft and the Deep Space Network (DSN) stations on the Earth. Ionospheric total electron content (TEC) derived from dual-frequency observations made from the global GPS network has been serving the media calibration for NASA's DSN operations.

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